Diesel Oil Emulsions (DOE) are direct substitutes for diesel in all diesel applications including, compression ignition engines (high, medium and low speed diesel engines), combustion turbines, furnaces and boilers. Depending on its application, the water content of APT’s DOE can vary between 6% to 16% by volume; however, the standard product contains about 11% water, less than 2% additive, with the balance comprising of diesel.
|Figure 1: APT DOE
The diesel engine is the most efficient source of heavy duty power. Heavy-duty trucks, urban buses, and industrial equipment are powered by diesel engines all over the world. In Europe and Japan, diesel powered cars have been increasingly popular. However, internal combustion engines are significant contributors to air pollution, which has a damaging impact on our health and the environment, most often associated with global climate changes. Although diesel engines emit lower greenhouse gas emissions, there is growing concern with their emissions of NOx and PM. Increasingly tighter environmental regulations worldwide call for stricter controls on diesel emissions in the years to come.
A proposed solution to the diesel exhaust issue is the introduction of so-called “alternative fuels”, such as compressed natural gas (CNG). These fuels are generally more expensive than diesel fuel oil; require costly engine modifications, new transportation delivery and storage infrastructure and time consuming re-training of personnel.
DOE has proven emission benefits over diesel and significant advantages over “alternative fuels” because its use requires no engine modifications, uses existing diesel fuel oil infrastructure and requires virtually no re-training of personnel.
The primary application for DOE is in on road diesel engine applications, such as trucks and buses, and off road applications, such as stationary electricity generators, construction machinery, tractors, etc.
DOE provides significant economic, environmental, and operational advantages for operators of diesel engines.
- Competitive Pricing - DOE can offer enhanced margins to the manufacturer/distributor and as a result of tax credit or incentives can provide a cost advantage to end users
- Improved Efficiency - Because of the large number of variables which can affect fuel efficiency, APT does not claim specific levels of increased fuel efficiency. Tests and trials have demonstrated diesel fuel efficiency increases varying from marginal to 10%
DOE’s unique combustion characteristics result in significant environmental benefits over diesel. Depending on the engine type, age and condition, service history, maintenance, duty cycles, driver behavior and water content of the DOE compared to diesel, extensive testing has proven that the common ranges of DOE reductions are:
- NOx - between 10% and 30%
- CO - between 10% and 60%
- CO2 - between 2% to 4%
- Particulate Matter - up to 60%
- Visible smoke - Virtually eliminated
The unique robustness and stability of DOE will result in significant operational benefits over diesel. Depending on the engine type, age and condition of maintenance, compared to diesel, extensive testing has proven:
- Reduced Engine Wear - DOE removes and prevents carbon build-up which is a prime cause of engine wear and increased maintenance costs
- No Modifications - Diesel engines require no modifications to operate on DOE
Most technologies reduce either NOx or PM, but emulsified diesel will allow fleet operators to reduce both with one technology. In addition, APT intends to partner with other technologies to combine emulsified fuels with retrofit hardware, such as diesel oxidative catalysts, to achieve maximum emission reductions created by specific synergies.